Down syndrome, also known as mungolism in the past, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an additional chromosome in the chromosome 21.
Symptoms of Down Syndrome
1. Major or mild abnormalities in structure or function of the organs
2. Having learning problems
3. delay in process of growth
4. Low mental ability than normal people
5. Different appearance features such as flat profile, upward diagonal eyes, small ears, a single line in the middle of the palm and large tongue
Diagnosis of Down Syndrome
1. Amniotic fluid (amniocentesis) test
A sample of fetal placenta roses in pregnancy is done by measuring the thickness of the embryo’s neck. This method was used in the past for mothers under the age of 35 years.
2. Screening Down Syndrome
This test should be done for all mothers in the first trimester of pregnancy or in second trimester of pregnancy. In this experiment, non-gut methods such as maternal or ultrasound examination, as well as NIPT are used.
3. QF-PCR and karyotype testing
Causes of Down Syndrome
One of the causes of Down syndrome in pregnancy is the age of the mother. High age of the mother increases risk of the the disease. Other factors are involved in the development of this disease, the most common being older than the mother.
Down syndrome treatment
In this disease, malocclusion causes imbalance in the growth process of the fetus, resulting in forms of mental and motor defects. In Down syndrome, there are muscle relaxations in the body’s parts like the head. Today, the disease is controlled by therapeutic methods. Some problems, such as the magnitude of language and openness of the mouth, can be treated with rehabilitation. In other western drainages it can be treated by surgery.